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Learn study notes history ap world chapter 17 tokugawa japan with free interactive flashcards. He was also allowed for a brief period to visit Okazaki to pay homage to his father’s grave and to receive the homage of his nominal servants, guided by the karō Torii Tadayoshi. He was named the first official shogun in 1603, thus beginning the Tokugawa Shogunate. [9], Modern scholars tend to view his bad reputation as a reflection of the ill will borne toward him by the daimyo--most notably the fudai lords--who resented the strongman's pursuit of the shogunate's interests at the expense of their own. During the forty years before the Edo period, the three unifiers, Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, evolved a system which proved increasingly capable of ensuring the loyalty and obedience of vassals. Anti-western daimyo, particularly in the southern provinces of Choshu and Satsuma, blamed the Tokugawa shogunate for its inability to defend Japan against the foreign barbarians. [9] Foreign affairs and trade were monopolized by the shogunate, yielding a huge profit. [3] [16] The rulers were warriors and the people they ruled were largely illiterate. [5], Notwithstanding its eventual overthrow in favor of the more modernized, less feudal form of governance of the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa shogunate oversaw the longest period of peace and stability in Japan's history, lasting well over 260 years. Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616) was the third of the three great unifiers of Japan and the founder of the Tokugawa shogunate that ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868. [4] The establishment of a stable national regime was a substantial achievement, as Japan had lacked effective and durable central governance for well over a century prior to Ieyasu’s rise. Later that year the emperor moved into the Tokugawa castle in Edo, and the city was renamed Tokyo (“Eastern Capital”). There followed a period in which Shi-Shi attempted assassination and Shogunate leaders surrounded themselves with body guards. [16], The most important philosophy of Tokugawa Japan was Neo- Confucianism, stressing the importance of morals, education and hierarchical order in the government and society: A strict four class system existed during the Edo period: at the top of the social hierarchy stood the samurai, followed by the peasants, artisans and merchants. [3] During the Tokugawa period important economic and social changes occurred: improved farming methods and the growing of cash crops stimulated agricultural productivity; Osaka and Edo became centers of expanded interregional trade; urban life became more sophisticated; and literacy spread to almost half of the male population. Observers, especially powerful daimy, saw that the shogunate had no new ideas about how to handle the foreign threat, much less the domestic problems wracking the country. The shogunate took the unprecedented and, as it proved, fatal step of consulting the daimyo on how to meet the crisis. [7] [13] [4] Although the Tokugawa regime ended in 1868, it bequeathed a deep and rich political, economic, and cultural legacy to modern Japan. [9] © Copyright 2017, Power Text Solutions, All Due to there being no wars in the Tokugawa period, the samurai denigrated to a parasitic class of beggars with great privilege and became a burden to the peasants who payed them. [3] Following his father's death, Hidetada assumed power, and by arranging the marriage of his daughter to the emperor, further strengthened the power of the Tokugawa Shogunate. [29] Location This is a map of the where the Tokugawa Empire had their land. Those lords whose ancestors had crossed the great divide of the year 1600 successfully, establishing themselves as daimyo in the realm of the Tokugawa, had inherited corps of samurai assembled by their forefathers in an age of incessant combat that faded into ever more distant memory as the Edo period progressed. Their presence there, constricted as it was, guaranteed that a tenuous link with Europe was maintained by Japan even if the Tokugawa shogunate had turned the realm it ruled into sakoku, a "closed country." The Tokugawa shogunate also had responsibilities and concerns which went beyond those of ordinary domains; the Tokugawa shoguns were, after all, hegemons presiding over a whole country. [8] [5] [1], The samurai were not the only sector in Japan that faced changing lifestyles or livelihoods under the Tokugawas. After Hideyoshi's death in 1598, Tokugawa Ieyasu came into power. More. Because the city of Edo (now Tokyo) was its capital, the Tokugawa shogunate is frequently identified as the Edo bakufu, and the period of Tokugawa rule is often labeled the Edo era. During the Warring States period (c.1467-1590), centralized political authority--the imperial court and the military government (shogunate, or bakufu )--had lost its effectiveness. He sent signals to them several times, to outflank the Tokugawa army, for this would help the defenders to prevail and possibly end the battle. In the course of the Tokugawa era the samurai were domesticated. [9] [9], Nikko's grand shrine, Tosho-gu, houses the mausoleum of Tokugawa Ieyasu, founder of Japan's most influential shogunate who ruled Japan for over 250 years until 1868. The rural location of the Tokugawa enhanced and complimented our enjoyment of lovely Nikko. At that time, the Japanese emperor was little more than a figurehead, and the true leadership of Japan was in the hands of the Tokugawa Shogunate. [10] [4] His resignation in 1867 as shogun, returning all power to the Emperor, helped make the Meiji Restoration, overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate and restoration of power to the emperor, a comparatively peaceful transition. [1] [9], It was on this battlefield, then, that the Tokugawa clan would finally achieve absolute military dominance in Japan. The shogunate held a near monopoly over foreign trade and foreign affairs. Both of these works explore Japanese Zen’s decline and rebirth during the Tokugawa shogunate (1600-1868), a topic I'm just beginning to gain acquaintance with. [29], When Tokugawa Ieyasu became shogun it was the start of a revolution in Japan. [11] He thus becomes the first of the Tokugawa shoguns. Tokugawa Japan Location: Japan Dates:1603 to 1867 Political / Military used bureaucratic techniques to govern the empire Absolute autocratic monarchy Tomyotomi Hideyoshi unified Japan, Great HOW did rulers legitimize and consolidate power? [8], Ieyasu formally ruled as shogun for just two years, but in order to ensure his family's claim on the title and ensure continuity of policy, he had his son Hidetada named shogun in 1605, running the government from behind the scenes until his death in 1616 -- this political and administrative savvy would characterize the first Tokugawa shoguns. The daimyo, or lords, were at the top, followed by the warrior-caste of samurai, with the farmers, artisans, and trader… [22], In 1680, Tsunayoshi Tokugawa assumed the fifth shogunate and took charge of state affairs ( Fig. [4] This weakening of the shogun's power speeded up the downfall of the Shogunate. Tokugawa authorities were aware of the problems facing samurai. Tokugawa Ieyasu defeated the daimyo who were loyal to the late Toyotomi Hideyoshi and his young son Hideyori at the Battle of Sekigahara in October of 1600. [23] They also had to travel to and from Edo along a route dictated by the shogunate. [9] The shogunate exercised authority by compelling the wives and children of all daimy to reside permanently in Edo. The last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), retreated to Edo. [9], Ieyasu insisted the Shogunate had been insulted by an inscription on a bell at temple constructed by Hideyori. [3] For more than two-and-a-half centuries, Japan enjoyed peace and a steady advance in economic and technological spheres. It offers Japanese-style and Western rooms with free WiFi access, and provides free pick up service from Nikko Train Station. Japan is an island nation where many ideas have passed through, and in the Tokugawa Shogunate, four religions established a presence in Japan. In January 1868, combined military forces of the domains of Satsuma and Chshū marched into Kyoto, took control of the imperial palace, and proclaimed the restoration of the emperor and the abolition of the Tokugawa shogunate. The samurai class, who were forbidden from engaging in profitable trade or farming, were disadvantaged by Tokugawa policies and attitudes toward the economy. [3] The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle and the years of the shogunate became known as the Edo period. [1] This was the case from 1603, the very first year of the shogunate's existence, when the "great names" were made to take a hand in transforming Edo from a small town into a city worthy of being called the shogun's capital. [8] [11], Tokugawa Ietsugu ; was the seventh shogun of the Tokugawa Dynasty, who ruled from 1713 until his death in 1716. Of the remaining lands, the shogunate allocated about 10 percent to blood relations (known as the collateral, or shinpan daimy houses). [9] [7] [15] [18] In 1603 a shogunate was established by a warrior, Tokugawa Ieyasu, in the city of Edo (present Tokyo). [1] During its final 30 years in power the Tokugawa shogunate had to contend with peasant uprisings and samurai unrest as well as with financial problems. Ieyasu maintained control until his death 11 years later, but this maneuver established the hereditary nature of the shogunate, which it would be maintained through 15 Tokugawa shoguns, until 1867. [15] The zenith of the Edo Period has passed and the Tokugawa Shogunate is approaching an impending twilight to its centuries long rule over the Japanese Archipelago as it faces great internal and external challenges. [12], Their wives and children lived in Edo all the time, being in effect hostages of the shogunate. [15] [9] [1] It also maintained the largest number of samurai, the military component of the system, and demanded and received allegiance from the 270 or so daimyō, and their samurai vassals, who lived in … The Tokugawa shogunate , also known, especially in Japanese, as the Edo shogunate (江戸幕府, Edo bakufu), was the feudal military government of Japan during the Edo period from 1600 to 1868. [9] Include any special military units and use of bureaucratic elites. Tokugawa Ieyasu, the Tokugawa Daimyo, quickly moved to dominate the council. The early Tokugawa shoguns' use of land distribution to both win the allegiance and encourage the dependence of daimy illustrates the blend of resourcefulness, pragmatism, and foresight characteristic of Tokugawa political rule. [9], In June 1615, with Ieyasu's son Hidetada in supreme command, the Tokugawa armies poured through the gates of Osaka Castle and burned it to the ground. This era, known as the Edo Period, was characterised by political stability in Japan after the Tokugawa shogun beat almost every other enemy in the land, but also isolation from the international community reducing trade relations to limited interactions with the Dutch and Chinese in the port of Nagasaki. Following the Sengoku Period of "warring states", central government had been largely reestablished by Oda Nobunaga during the Azuchi-Momoyama period. [1] Japan reacted strong to such foreign attempts in 1825, the Tokugawa shogunate ordered all Japanese authorities to drive out foreign vessels "without second thought". On November 9, 1867, Yoshinobu resigned from the office of shogun, which was abolished, relinquishing the power of the shogunate to a new emperor. [17] [3] 201507195, citing Chohoji-temple, Kainan-shi, Wakayama, Japan ; Maintained by Asahi Ishizaki (contributor 49104698) . [12] By inviting some of the daimyo to be representatives at the Council of State, the shogun provided a golden opportunity for them to form a political movement against the Tokugawa Shogunate. The Ishida Daimyo declared that Tokugawa would seize power from the young regent. When the Onin War of 1467-1477 caused central government to collapse and brought in the Age of Warring States, the warrior monks were joined by armies of peasant rebels known as "ikki", fervent believers in a militant form of … The founder of the shogunate, Tokugawa Ieyasu, was himself a hostage for nearly 13 years as a young boy. The end of the Edo period is referred to as the late Tokugawa shogunate. Of these, perhaps none is more striking than the contrast between the Tokugawa rulers' vision of the ideal economic system and the reality of economic growth and change. [1], In 1866, Shogun Tokugawa Iemochi suddenly died, and Tokugawa Yoshinobu reluctantly took power. The primary political goal of Tokugawa Ieyasu and his heirs--his son, Hidetada (1578-1632) and grandson, Iemitsu (1604-1651)--was to cut off the roots of potential dissent and rebellion. [9] [11] Low-ranking samurai had long observed that the system of rank and office under the Tokugawa had become entirely hereditary. The people called the four major islands of Japan as well as the thousands of minor island … [9] [11] The Tokugawa shogunate established a monopoly on access to the imperial court. It was similar to the European feudal system (pope, emperor or king, feudal barons, and retainers in Europe compared to emperor, the shogun, the daimyo, and samurai retainers in Japan), but it was also very bureaucratic, an attribute not associated with European feudalism. [24] [10] [2] [8] [10] [9] The period thence to the year 1867--the Tokugawa, or Edo, era--constitutes the later feudal period in Japan. It was the emperor of that period who gave him this title. IN the areas shaded, the cities of Hyogo, Kyoto, Osaka, and Edo. [12] [25] He planned the assassination of a Shogunate leader who was contemptuous of the Emperor's court. (There are an estimated 300,000 Christians in Japan at this time.) [9] [9] The first ruling shogunate arose with the 150-year Kamakura period, 1192-1333, followed by another during what is known as the Muromachi Period, from 1338-1573. The Tokugawas continued this harsher imposition of the four-tier class structure, enforcing rules about small details like which classes could use luxurious silks for their clothing or tortoise shell for hairpins. The shogunate was well aware of two basic rules of Confucianism, the dominant East Asian political philosophy. [4] In an effort to reestablish order in its international relations, however, the Tokugawa Shogunate prohibits trade with Western nations, prohibits Japanese from going abroad to trade (ending the unofficial piracy and trade on the China coast), and reaffirms Japan's official relations with China and Korea within the East Asian international structure. Japan's economy at this time was based on rice, and Tokugawa had by far the greatest area under rice cultivation. The shogunate had the power to discard, annex, and transform domains. [9], Ii Tairô used his dictatorial powers to sign treaties of commerce and friendship with the United States and four other imperialist countries in spite of the shogunate's failure to secure approval from the "heavenly sovereign" in Kyoto; forced the question of the shogunal succession in favor of his own candidate; conducted a bloody purge of his political opponents; and for his trouble was killed by a band of super-patriotic rogue samurai. What history now shorthands as the shogunate arose when one clan, the Tokugawa, finally defeated the others, uniting the country under one government. [9]. Choose from 360 different sets of study notes history ap world chapter 17 tokugawa japan flashcards on Quizlet. [29] Their economic position was being undermined and even the mighty Tokugawa was in financial difficulty. The shogunate was only one part of the bakuhan system, however; the domains were the other. [9] Historically considered the most stable and peaceful period in Japanese history, the Tokugawa Period—also known as the Edo Period, after the city in which the shōgun had his capital—began with Ieyasu’s victory over Hideyoshi’s forces at the Battle of Sekigahara, and the consolidation of political power around the Tokugawa clan and its daimyō allies in Japan’s east, on the Kantō plain. See more ideas about Tokugawa ieyasu, Japan, Japanese history. During his long career, as Imperial Regent and then Chancellor of the Realm, much power was held by the two most powerful clans, the Tokugawa and the Ishida. There are accounts of illiterate samurai, especially later in the Tokugawa period. [10] The resulting system of semi-autonomous domains directed by the central authority of the Tokugawa shogunate lasted for more than 250 years. By the end of the 1700s, Edo had become the greatest city in the world and it became so key to the Tokugawa period that it also became known as the Edo period. The southern daimyo were more successful in their modernization than the shogunate was. [12], Obviously--as one old warhorse remarked grumpily as early as the 1620s--in an age of peace the abacus counted more than the sword, the taxman brought home more than the warrior, and one got promoted for smooth talk rather than rough deeds. [10] [1] [13] The Tokugawa Shogunate lapsed into decline and fell after many revolts, making way for the Meiji Restoration. [12], The system also involved the daimyo's wives and heirs remaining in Edo, disconnected from their lord and from their home province, serving essentially as hostages who might be harmed or killed if the daimyo were to plot rebellion against the shogunate. The period thence to the year 1867—the Tokugawa, or Edo, era—constitutes the later feudal period in Japan. Baku is an abbreviation of bakufu, meaning "military government"--that is, the shogunate. [16] [3] [10] [13] The Dutch learning encouraged the Japanese scholars to criticise the Shogunate for the shortcomings of the closed door policy. The Tokugawa Shogunate was, by and large, a peaceful period, but it was not exactly easy. Guests at Tokugawa Hotel can unwind in the public hot spring bath, savor a massage treatment or go hiking in the area. [2] He was the son of Tokugawa Iemitsu, and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu In 1682, Shogun Tsunayoshi ordered his police to raise the living standard of the people. How did the state use art, architecture, and culture to its advantage? “Japan’s defeat in the war, and asset taxes, deprived our family of 90 percent of its property,” Yoshichika wrote in a 1963 essay. Society in the Tokugawa period, unlike the shogunates before it, was supposedly based on the strict class hierarchy originally established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. [4], In January 1868, they attempted a coup d'etat to overthrow the newly throned Shogun Tokugawa Keiki. The Tokugawa shogunate came to an official end in 1868 with the resignation of the 15th Tokugawa shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, leading to the "restoration" ( 王政復古, Ōsei fukko ) of imperial rule. ] Since 1603 the shogun ( 1603–1867 ) Tokugawa was in financial difficulty Matsudaira! 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