*~*. According to “Topics in Japanese Cultural History”: In an age when many worried about mappo, revenues from estates (or the lack of those revenues), and the instability of frequent warfare, some Japanese sought purity and idealism in art where none was to be found in ordinary human society. The samurai during the Muromachi Period This period is also known as the Ashikaga period. Despite repeated orders from the bakufu, local warriors were unable, or unwilling, to suppress these bandits. by Dr. Maribeth Graybill and Dr. Steven Zucker. However, the revival of the old imperial offices under the Kemmu restoration (1334) did not last for long because the old administration system was out of date and practice, and incompetent officials failed gaining the support of the powerful landowners. hearts at rest as expeditiously as possible. Well educated viewers of the painting might also have noticed that the term "three worthies" comes from the Analects of Confucius. [Source: “Japan: A Documentary History: The Dawn of History to the Late Tokugawa Period”, edited by David J. Lu (Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, 1997), 155-156]. During most of the Muromachi period, power drained out of the "central" government(s) into the hands of local warlords. [Source: “Topics in Japanese Cultural History” by Gregory Smits, Penn State University figal-sensei.org *~*], Zen Buddhism and Muromachi Period Painting, According to “Topics in Japanese Cultural History”: Zen Buddhsim was undoubtedly the single greatest influence on Japanese painting during the Kamakura and Muromachi periods. The Kamakura bakufu was losing its grip on the warriors, particularly in outlying areas and in the western provinces.” *~*, Go-Daigo and Demise of the Kamakura Shoganate, Allowing two contending imperial lines to coexist worked for several successions until a member of the Southern Court ascended to the throne as Emperor Go-Daigo (r. 1318- 39). As the culture of the continent including Zen Buddhism was introduced by the trade with foreign nations, the warrior class, even after being influenced by it, blended the strength and simplicity of its own culture with the traditional beauty of court noble's, and created a new culture of the warrior class. Muromachi period was the time in which the warrior class politically overwhelmed court nobles, and its culture largely developed. Of the 2,609 works of sculpture designated as National Treasures 国宝 or Important Cultrual Properties 重要文化財 in Japan, not one piece from the Muromachi period is on the list of National Treausures, and only 90 Muromachi pieces are listed as Important Cultural Properties (and those only in recent decades). [shugo], these men could ignore the commands of their family chieftains (soryo) . Border defenses were improved, and wellfortified castle towns were built to protect the newly opened domains, for which land surveys were made, roads built, and mines opened. Samurai became involved in the arts and, under the influence of Zen Buddhism, samurai artists created great works that emphasized restrain and simplicity. Such material is made available in an effort to advance understanding of country or topic discussed in the article. Between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries, Shinto reemerged as the primary belief system, developed its own philosophy and scripture (based on Confucian and Buddhist canons), and became a powerful nationalistic force. In spite of the political disorder, the Muromachi period witnessed great cultural growth, particularly under the influence of Zen Buddhism. They wanted to put emperor Go-Daigo back into power. "Kamakura and Nanbokucho Periods (1185–1392)". The Hojo reacted to the ensuing chaos by trying to place more power among the various great family clans. In the realm of foreign relations, he initiated formal diplomatic ties between Japan and Ming China in 1401. [Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art, Department of Asian Art. Nanboku-Cho style long sword became useless, as a result, they were shortened. So too, did bamboo, which is extremely sturdy despite its hollow core. SAMURAI CODE OF CONDUCT factsanddetails.com; In Tosa, Baiken MINAMIMURA, who lectured on Neo-Confucianism, became known as the founder of Nangaku (Neo-Confucianism in Tosa); in Hokuriku region, Nobutaka KIYOHARA lectured on Confucianism for various daimyo such as the Hatakeyama clan in Noto Province, the Takeda clan in Wakasa Province, and the Asakura clan in Echizen Province. It is one of Kyoto’s major tourist attractions today, although the current structure is not the original one. Samurai Armor, Weapons, Swords and Castles Samurai Arms and Armor artsofthesamurai.com ; Armor from Clan Yama Kaminari yamakaminari.com ; Putting on Armor chiba-muse.or.jp ; Castles of Japan pages.ca.inter.net ; Enthusiasts for Visiting Japanese Castles (good photos but a lot of text in Japanese shirofan.com ; Good Photos of Thousand Warrior Procession at Japan-Photo Archive japan-photo.de ; Seppuku Wikipedia article on Seppuku Wikipedia ; Seppuku---A Practical Guide kyushu.com/gleaner ; Tale of 47 Loyal Samurai High School Student Project eonet.ne.jp/~chushingura and Columbia University site columbia.edu/~hds2/chushinguranew Sengakuji Temple is a modest temple dedicated to the 47 samurai who committed ritual suicide in 1702. TOKUGAWA IEYASU AND THE TOKUGAWA SHOGUNATE factsanddetails.com; 8) The government must put an end to interference by men of power and by nobility, as well as by women, Zen monks, and monks holding no official ranks. It was in the Sengoku Period that the following books were published: "Setsuyoshu" (a Japanese-language dictionary in iroha order) written by Soji MANJUYA, and "Ishotaizen" (The Complete Book of Medicine), a medical book in Ming's language, translated by ASAI no Sozui, who was a merchant in Sakai City and a physician. The true tea ceremony was devised by Murata Juko (died 1490), an advisor to the Shogun Ashikaga. Aristocratic society was overwhelmingly military in character. The definition refers to a late 19 th century description and was actually quite different than codes from earlier times. The Muromachi period (1336-1493) For those who’ve read through chapters 1 and 2, this is the chapter where you finally get to wabi-sabi, the origin of simple, minimal and quiet, traditional, Japanese aesthetics. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit. Some jumped into the fires. >Early Japanese castles were usually built on flat land in the middle of the town they protected. *~*, “All of the paintings we have seen thus far reflect Chinese influence, both in terms of style and content. Higashiyamaculture (東山文化) Higashiyamaculture is a term which refers to the culture in the middle of the Muromachi Period. Some of the impoverished court nobles or priests in Kyoto left their places devastated by war, went down to prosperous local cities, and asked local daimyo (feudal lords) and kokujin (local lords) for help. The rest of society was controlled in a system of vassalage. At first, most of these bandits were poorly armed civilians, sometimes called #akuto ("gangs of thugs")# ??. The ideal of reclusion (i.e., living a pure, simple life removed from human affairs) is also clearly evident in much Muromachi art. His work often features the primordial creative forces of nature (paintings in a style called tenkai). The third Shogun Yoshimitsu ASHIKAGA built a magnificent villa in Kitayama, Kyoto; an architectural style of a golden pavilion constructed there is a blend of traditional Shinden-zukuri style (the palace style characteristic of Fujiwara period architecture) and Zen temple style, embodying a distinctive feature of this period; hence the name "Kitayama culture.". Takauji then set a rival on the throne and established a new military government in Kyoto. The Muromachi period. We must therefore set the people’s It was a culture that was established during the time of Yoshimitsu ASHIKAGA; it was full of vitality in that the mixture of various cultures dramatically developed such that the culture of the continent mixed with the Japanese culture, or the culture of court nobles mixed with the culture of the warrior class; however, Kitayama culture had a vulgar aspect as well. Many sources are cited at the end of the facts for which they are used. The Muromachi period was a volatile time for the Japanese, but there were many breakthroughs in food and culture that stayed with the people to this day. Takezaki Suenaga, for example, disobeyed the commands of his relatives in order to receive lands and rewards from ranking bakufu officials such as Adachi Yasumori. WOKOU: JAPANESE PIRATES factsanddetails.com; It runs from around 1333 (some say 1336) until 1573.The era began with turmoil, as the country divided itself between support of the Northern and Southern Imperial courts, while the Ashikaga shôguns … Later, multi-storied pagoda-like castles called donjons, were built on top of raised stone platforms. Indeed, he treated the emperors quite poorly, not even allowing them their former ceremonial dignity. These three trees--the most obvious set of "three worthies"--dwarf the human-built structure. Perhaps the most famous of these landscapes is Sesshu’s (1420-1506) “Winter Landscape.” The most striking feature of this work is the thick, jagged "crack" or "tear" running down the middle of the upper portion of the painting. Partition painting and folding screen painting were developed during Ashikaga Period (1338-1573) as a way for feudal lords to decorate their castles. In this time of widespread social disorder and political transition (Takauji ordered the shogun’s capital moved from Kamakura to Kyoto), the Kemmu shikimoku (Kemmu code) was issued as a foundational document in the creation of laws for the new Muromachi shogunate. It is said that it was created by fusing cultures of the samurai class, the nobility, and Zen priests around the Higashiyama mountain villa in Kyoto which was built by Yoshimasa ASHIKAGA, the eighth shogun (1436-1490). The Warring States Era . Go-Daigo escaped, however, and became a magnet around which all the many dissatisfied groups in Japan rallied. Because there were two competing imperial courts, the period from roughly 1335 until reunification of the courts in 1392 is known as the period of the Northern and Southern Courts. The name "Muromachi" was taken from Muromachi-dori (street) in Kyoto, which is where the bakufu was based. Sarugaku (form of theater popular in Japan during the eleventh to fourteenth centuries), Kyogen (farce played during a Noh play cycle), and Renga (linked verse) became popular in both urban and rural areas; tea drinking customs also spread in the form of Chanoyu (the tea ceremony). Afterwards, Japan entered the Period of Civil Wars, in which the shoguns were weak or non-existent and daimyo established fiefs as separate political entities (rather than vassals states within a shogunate) and castles were built to protect them. The provincial domains that emerged after the Onin War were smaller and easier to control. In other words, he launched a counter-revolution against Go-Daigo and his policies designed to create a strong central government headed by an emperor. These are to be decreed immediately, but its rough Shukyu BANRI, a priest and a composer of Chinese-style poems, went down to Mino Province in the Onin War, and then left for Edo at Dokan OTA's invitation; he traveled all over the Kanto region, Echigo Province, and Hida Province. These subordinate families frequently overthrew their daimyo in an attempt to seize his lands and power. Muromachi Period Tea (1338-1573) During the Muromachi period (1338–1573) the vogue for Chinese art, especially among the Ashikaga shoguns, who ruled as the military leaders of Japan during this period, led to the development of new architectural environments in which to display collections of tea-related objects. As the opposition forces grew stronger, bakufu leaders assembled a vast army under the command of Ashikaga Takauji (1305-1358). 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